Contents   Fixed field   0xx   1xx   2xx   3xx   4xx   5xx   6xx   7xx   8xx   9xx

856  Electronic Location and Access (R)

Input Standards

Optional/Optional
1st Indicator  Access method
blank character No information provided
0 E-mail
1 FTP
2 Remote login (Telnet)
3 Dial-up
4 HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
7 Method specified in subfield ‡2
2nd Indicator  Relationship
blank character No information provided
0 Resource
1 Version of resource
2 Related resource
8 No display constant generated
Subfields (R=Repeatable  NR=Nonrepeatable) Input Standards
‡a Host name (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡b Access number (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡c Compression information (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡d Path (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡f Electronic name (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡h Processor of request (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡i Instruction (R) Optional/Optional
‡j Bits per second (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡k Password (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡l Logon (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡m Contact for access assistance (R) Optional/Optional
‡n Name of location of host (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡o Operating system (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡p Port (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡q Electronic format type (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡r Settings (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡s File size (R) Optional/Optional
‡t Terminal emulation (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡u Uniform Resource Identifier (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡v Hours access method available (R) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡w Record control number (R) Optional/Optional
‡x Nonpublic note (R) Optional/Optional
‡y Link text (R) Optional/Optional
‡z Public note (R) Optional/Optional
‡2 Access method (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable
‡3 Materials specified (NR) Required if applicable/Required if applicable

Definition

The information required to locate and access an electronic item. Use field 856 in a bibliographic record for a resource when that resource or a subset of it is available electronically. In addition, use field 856 to locate and access an electronic version of a non-electronic resource described in the bibliographic record or a related electronic resource.

Repeat field 856 when the location data elements vary (the URI in subfield ‡u or subfields ‡a, ‡b and ‡d, when used) and when more than one access method is used. Repeat field 856 also when different portions of the item are available electronically, mirror sites are recorded, different formats/resolutions with different URIs are indicated and related items are recorded.

1st Indicator

Access method. The access method to the electronic resource. If the resource is available by more than one access method, repeat the field with data appropriate to each method. The methods defined are the main TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocols.

When recording a URI in subfield ‡u, the value corresponds to the access method (URI scheme) which is also the first element in the URI string.

 
blank character

No information provided. No information about the access method is provided.

 
0

E-mail. Access to the resource is through e-mail. Include information on subscribing to an electronic journal or electronic forum through software intended to be used by an e-mail system.

856 0   ‡u mailto:ejap@phil.indiana.edu ‡i ejap subscription
 
1

FTP. Access to the resource is through File Transfer Protocol (FTP).

856 1   ‡u ftp://path.net/pub/docs/urn2urc.ps
 
2

Remote login (Telnet). Access to the resource is through remote login (Telnet). You may include information in the subfields to enable users to connect to the resource electronically. (This is equivalent to a URI telnet: scheme.)

856 2   ‡u telnet://pucc.princeton.edu ‡n Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
 
3

Dial-up. Access to the electronic resource is through a conventional telephone line (dial up). Use subfields to record information that may enable the user to connect to the resource.

856 3   locis.loc.gov ‡b 140.147.254.3 ‡m lconline@loc.gov ‡t 3270 ‡t line mode (e.g., vt100) ‡v M-F 6:00 a.m.-21:30 p.m. USA EST, Sat 8:30-17:00 USA EST, Sun. 13:00-17:00 USA EST
 
4

HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol). Access to the electronic resource is through Hypertext Transfer Protocol.

856 4 0 ‡u http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/contents.all.htm
 
7

Method specified in subfield ‡2 . Access to the resource is through a method other than the defined values and for which an identifying code is given in subfield ‡2.

856 7   ‡3 b&w film copy neg. ‡d dag ‡f 3d01926 ‡2 file

2nd Indicator

Relationship. The relationship between the electronic resource at the location identified in field 856 and the item described in the record as a whole. Use subfield ‡3 to provide further information about the relationship if it is not a one-to-one relationship.

 
blank character

No information provided. No information is provided about the relationship of the electronic resource to the bibliographic item described by the record.

 
0

Resource. The electronic location in field 856 is for the same resource described by the record as a whole. In this case, the item represented by the bibliographic record is an electronic resource. If the data in field 856 relates to a constituent unit of the resource represented by the record, use subfield ‡3 to specify the portion(s) to which the field applies. The display constant Electronic resource: may be provided.

245 1 0 Proceedings of the Seminar on Cataloging Digital Documents, October 12-14, 1994 ‡h [electronic resource] / ‡c University of Virginia Library, Charlottesville, and the Library of Congress
856 4 0 ‡u http://lcweb.loc.gov/catdir/semdigdocs/seminar.html
 
1

Version of resource. The location in field 856 is for an electronic version of the resource described by the record. In this case, the item represented by the bibliographic record is not electronic, but an electronic version is available. If the data in field 856 relates to a constituent unit of the resource represented by the record, use subfield ‡3 to specify the portion(s) to which the field applies. The display constant Electronic version: may be provided.

245 0 0 American quarterly.
856 4 1 ‡u http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_quarterly/
 
2

Related resource. The location in field 856 is for an electronic resource related to the bibliographic item described by the record. In this case, the item represented by the bibliographic record is not the electronic resource itself. Use subfield ‡3 to further characterize the relationship between the electronic item identified in field 856 and the item represented by the bibliographic record as a whole. The display constant Related electronic resource: may be provided.

Limit use to electronic resources that have a specific bibliographic relationship to the resource described in the body of the record. This would include links to such resources as a finding aid for an archival collection or the Web site of a musical group on a bibliographic record for a sound recording. This would not, however, include Web sites that have merely a general subject relationship to the resource.

245 0 0 ‡k Papers, ‡f 1932-1970 ‡g (bulk 1932-1965)
856 4 2 ‡3 Finding aid ‡u http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm
245 1 0 White blood cells ‡h [sound recording] / ‡c the White Stripes.
856 4 2 ‡3 Song lyrics ‡u http://www.whitestripes.com/discs/wbc.html
 
8

No display constant generated. The value that specifies that a display constant is not generated.

Subfields

 
‡a Host name

The fully qualified domain (host name) of the electronic location. Repeat subfield ‡a if there is more than one address for the same host.

856 1   harvarda.harvard.edu ‡a harvarda.bitnet
‡b Access number

The access number associated with a host. Use for Internet Protocol (IP) numeric address for an Internet resource. Use for a telephone number if access is through a telephone line (dial up). This data may change frequently and may be generated by the system, rather than statically stored. Repeat subfield ‡b if all the other information in the field applies.

856 2   anthrax.micro.umn.edu ‡b 128.101.95.23
‡c Compression information

The information about the compression of a file. If a specific program is required to decompress the file, it is noted here. Repeat subfield ‡c if two compression programs are used. Enter the latest compression first.

856 1   maine.maine.edu ‡c Must be decompressed with PKUNZIP ‡f resource.zip
‡d Path

The directory and subdirectory names in which the file is stored. Use subfield ‡f for the file name itself. Use subfield ‡d for a surrogate path to the host in which complete and current access information is stored.

856 1   wuarchive.wust1.edu ‡d /aii/admin/CAT.games ‡f mac-qubic.22.hqx
‡f Electronic name

The electronic name of a file as it exists in the directory/subdirectory indicated in subfield ‡d on the host identified in subfield ‡a. Repeat subfield ‡f if a single logical file has been divided into parts and stored under different names. In this case, the separate parts should constitute a single bibliographic item. In all other cases, for a file that may be retrieved under different filenames, use multiple occurrences of field 856, each with its corresponding electronic name in subfield ‡f.

856 1   wuarchive.wust1.edu ‡d mirrors/info-mac/util ‡f color-system-icons.hqx

File names may include wildcard characters (e.g., * or ?). Use subfield ‡z to explain how the files are named.

‡h Processor of request

The user name or processor of the request. Use for the data that precedes the at sign (@) in the host address.

856 0   uicvm.bitnet ‡f AN2 ‡h Listserv
‡i Instruction

The instruction or command needed for the remote host to process a request.

856 0   uccvma.bitnet ‡f IR-L ‡h Listserv ‡i subscribe
‡j Bits per second

The lowest and highest number of bits (binary units) of data that can be transmitted per second when connected to a host.

The syntax for recording the number of bits per second (BPS) is as follows: <Lowest BPS>-<Highest BPS>

  • If only the lowest is given: <Lowest BPS>-
  • If only the highest is given : -<Highest BPS>
856 0   ‡b 1-202-707-2316 ‡j 2400-9600 ‡n Library of Congress, Washington, DC ‡o UNIX ‡r E-7-1
‡k Password

The password required to access the electronic resource. An FTP site may require the user to enter an Internet Protocol address or may require a specific password. Electronically accessed catalogs may also require a password. Use for general passwords, not for security passwords. Omit subfield ‡k if a system that requires a password will accept anything entered as valid. Use subfield ‡z for password instructions.

856 1   harvarda.harvard.edu ‡k guest
‡l Logon

The characters needed to connect (e.g., logon or login) to an electronic resource or FTP site. An account number required for login may also be indicated. For many general-use File Transfer Protocol servers, access is gained by entering the string anonymous. Use to record general-use logon strings which do not require special security. Do not use for security passwords.

856 1   umnvm.bitnet ‡l anonymous
‡m Contact for access assistance

The contact person at the host specified in subfield ‡a. For addresses relating to the content of the resource itself (i.e., the item represented by the title recorded in field 245) rather than access assistance, use field 270. Also use field 270, if the address data is the same.

856 2   gopac.berkeley.edu ‡m Roy Tennant
‡n Name of location of host

The conventional name of the location of the host in subfield ‡a, including its physical (geographic) location.

856 2   pucc.princeton.edu ‡n Princeton University, Princeton, N.J.
‡o Operating system

The operating system used by the host specified in subfield ‡a. Conventions for the path and filenames may be dependent on the operating system of the host. For the operating system of the resource itself (i.e., the item represented by the title recorded in field 245), use field 753 subfield ‡c.

856 1   seq1.loc.gov ‡d /pub/soviet.archive ‡f k1famine.bkg ‡n Library of Congress, Washington, DC ‡o UNIX
‡p Port

The part of the address that contains the process or service in the host.

856 2   madlab.sprl.umich.edu ‡n University of Michigan Weather Underground ‡p 3000
‡q Electronic format type

The electronic format type which is the data representation of the resource, e.g., text/html, ASCII ( American National Standard Code for Information Interchange), executable application, JPEG image or Postscript file. It provides information to allow people or machines to make decisions about the usability of the encoded data (e.g., the hardware or software required to display or to execute the data). The electronic format type also determines the file transfer mode or how the data is transferred through the network.

Usually, a text file can be transferred as character data, which generally restricts the text to characters in the ASCII character set (i.e., the basic Latin alphabet, digits 0–9, most punctuation marks and a few special characters). Text files with characters outside the ASCII set or non-textual data (e.g., computer programs or images) must be transferred using another binary mode. Electronic format type may be taken from enumerated lists such as registered Internet Media Types (MIME types).

856 4 0 ‡u http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm ‡q text/html
‡r Settings

The settings used for transferring data.

  • Parity: the parity checking technique used. Parity values are:
    • O for odd
    • E for even
    • M for mark
    • S for space
    • N for none
  • Number Data Bits: the number of bits per character.
  • Number Stop Bits: the number of bits to signal the end of a byte.

The syntax is as follows: <Parity>-<Number Data Bits>-<Number Stop Bits>

  • If only the parity is given, the other elements of settings and their related hyphens are omitted: <Parity>
  • If one of the other two elements is given, the hyphen for the missing element is recorded in its proper position:
    • <Parity>-<Number Data Bits>-
    • <Parity>--<Number Stop Bits>
856 3   ‡b 1-202-707-2316 ‡j 2400-9600 ‡n Library of Congress, Washington, DC ‡o UNIX ‡r E-7-1 ‡t vt100 ‡z Requires logon and password
‡s File size

The size of the file stored under the file name indicated in subfield ‡f. Size is generally expressed in terms of 8-bit bytes (octets). Repeat subfield ‡s and place it after the subfield ‡f to which it applies, if needed. Do not enter this information for electronic journals since the field relates to the entire title, not to a particular issue.

856 0   keptvm.bitnet ‡f acadlist file1 ‡s 34,989 bytes ‡f acadlist file2 ‡s 32,876 bytes ‡f acadlist file3 ‡s 23,987 bytes
‡t Terminal emulation

The emulation supported to specify a remote login. Use with 1st indicator value 2.

856 2   maine.maine.edu ‡n University of Maine ‡t 3270
‡u Uniform Resource Identifier

The Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), for example a URL or URN, provides electronic access data in a standard syntax. Use for automated access to an electronic item using one of the Internet protocols or by resolution of a URN. The structure of field 856 allows for the creation of a URI from the concatenation of the other 856 subfields. Use subfield ‡u instead of those separate subfields or in addition to them. Repeat subfield if digital object has multiple identifiers (URIs).

856 1   ‡u ftp://path.net/pub/docs/urn2urc.ps

Substituting hexadecimal notation for diacritics and special characters in Uniform Resource Identifiers. When recording a URI in subfield ‡u, you may enter most of the spacing characters listed below as either characters or their hexidecimal equivalents. Consult the table below.

Note: Do not confuse the spacing characters listed below with their long-valid non-spacing counterparts. Use of the spacing characters will be limited almost exclusively to URLs.

Entry method Name Character Alternative entry (hex value)
Enter as character or hex value Spacing circumflex/circumflex accent ^ %5E
Spacing underscore/low line 1   _ %5F
Spacing grave/grave accent ` %60
Spacing tilde/tilde ~ %7E
Enter as hex value only vertical bar n/a %7C

1 Because the Spacing Underscore may cause problems with MARC output, users may prefer to continue entering it with the hexidecimal value %5F.

‡v Hours access method available

The hours that access to the electronic resource indicated in field 856 is available. For systems and services, use field 307, not subfield ‡v.

856 2   pac.carl.org ‡b 192.54.81.128 ‡m CARL Situation Room ‡m help@CARL.org ‡n CARL Systems, Inc., Denver, CO ‡v 24 hours
‡w Record control number

The system control number of the related record. Precede the number with a MARC code for the agency to which the control number applies. Enclose the MARC agency code in parentheses. The data in subfield ‡w links field 856 to the MARC record having the same data in a control number field. See MARC Code List for Organizations (http://www.loc.gov/marc/organizations/orgshome.html) or Symbols and Interlibrary Loan Policies in Canada (http://www.nlc-bnc.ca/6/16/s16-202-e.html).

‡x Nonpublic note

A note pertaining to the electronic location of the source identified in the field that is in a form not adequate for public display. A nonpublic note may contain processing information about the file at the location specified.

856 1   wuarchive.wust1.edu ‡c decompress with PKUNZIP.exe ‡d /mirrors2/win3/games ‡f atmoids.zip ‡x cannot verify because of transfer difficulty
‡y Link text

The link text that is used for display in place of the URI in subfield ‡u. When subfield ‡y is present, applications should use the contents of subfield ‡y as the link, instead of the content of subfield ‡u when linking to the destination in subfield ‡u. Subfield ‡u is independent of the 2nd indicator value.

856 4   ‡u http://fdl.fcla.edu:80/cgi-bin/cgiwrap/fdl/fdlcgi/ZKVIEWFA00000011/file2.pdf ‡y Electronic resource (PDF)
‡z Public note

A note pertaining to the electronic location of the source identified in the field that is in a form adequate for public display.

856 4   ‡u http://www.ref.oclc.org:2000 ‡z Address for accessing the journal using authorization number and password through OCLC FirstSearch Electronic Collections Online. Subscription to online journal required for access to abstracts and full text
‡2 Access method

The code defined for use with 1st indicator value 7. Use subfield ‡2 to record access methods other than the four main TCP/IP protocols specified in the 1st indicator.

The data in this subfield corresponds with the access schemes specified in Uniform Resource Locators (URL), a product of the Uniform Resource Identifiers Working Group of the IETF.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) maintains a registry of URL schemes and defines the syntax and use of new schemes.

LC includes an authoritative list based on that standard in the MARC Code Lists for Relators, Sources, Descriptive Conventions (http://www.loc.gov/marc/relators/relahome.html).

856 7 0 ‡u gopher://gopher.lib.virginia.edu:70/00/alpha/bmcr ‡2 gopher
‡3 Materials specified

The part of the described materials to which the field applies.

856 0   ‡3 Finding aid to the Edgar F. Kaiser papers ‡a gopher.berkeley.edu ‡b 128.224.55 ‡k guest ‡l anonymous ‡m Reference Services, The Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, tel. 510-642-6481 ‡n The Library, University of California, Berkeley ‡o UNIX ‡p 70 ‡q binary ‡s 2,394,394,444 ‡x The finding aid to the Kaiser papers is currently under revision. ‡z For further information about shipbuilding files, contact The Bancroft Library Reference

Indexing

For indexing and searching information, see Searching WorldCat Indexes, field 856.

Printing

Field 856 does not print, but you can repeat the electronic location and access information in field 538 to print it on cards.